Limited information indicates that maternal bupropion doses of up to 300 mg daily produce low levels in breastmilk and would not be expected to cause any adverse effects in breastfed infants. However, there is little reported use in breastfed newborn infants and one case report of a possible seizure in a partially breastfed 6-month-old. If bupropion is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding. However, another drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant. Exclusively breastfed infants should be monitored if this drug is used during lactation, possibly including measurement of serum levels to rule out toxicity if there is a concern.
Bupropionis metabolized to 3 metabolites (hydroxybupropion, erythrohydroxybupropion, threohydroxybupropion) with the antidepressant activity of each considered to be about 50% of bupropion 's.
A mother who was 14 months postpartum was taking bupropion 100 mg three times daily. Milk samples were obtained before and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours after the first daily dose of 100 mg. Peak bupropion levels of 181 and 189 mcg/L occurred at 1 and 2 hours after the dose, respectively. A peak hydroxybupropion level of 132 mcg/L occurred in milk 2 hours after the dose and peak threohydroxybupropion levels of 443 and 442 mcg/L occurred at 1 and 2 hours after the dose, respectively.
Ten women who were an average of 12.5 months postpartum and who did not nurse their infants after the start of bupropion therapy took sustained-release bupropion 150 mg daily for 3 days, then 300 mg daily for 4 days. On the seventh day, breastmilk levels of the drug and metabolites were measured at a median 2.5 hours (range 1 to 12 hours) after the last dose. Breastmilk levels were as follows: bupropion 45.2 mcg/L (range 4 to 168 mcg/L); hydroxybupropion 104.6 mcg/L (range 9 to 242 mcg/L); erythrohydroxybupropion 72.1 mcg/L (range 25.4 to 143 mcg/L); and threohydroxybupropion 459 mcg/L (range 193 to 1052 mcg/L). There was no correlation between the amount of these drugs excreted in milk and maternal or infant age, maternal body mass or breastfeeding frequency prior to the study. The authors estimated that an exclusively breastfed infant would receive an average of 0.2% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage of bupropion and an average of 2% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage of bupropion plus metabolites with this maternal dosage regimen.
Four women were taking bupropion SR 150 mg or 300 mg for depression or smoking cessation. Maternal milk and serum concentrations were measured before a dose at steady-state and 2 hours after the dose; 2 women had samples taken on 2 separate occasions. Milk bupropion concentrations standardized to a 150 mg dose averaged 64.1 mcg/L (range <10 to="" 120="" mcg/l);="" metabolites="" were="" not="" measured.="" the="" average="" infant="" dose="" (normalized="" to="" a="" 150="" mg="" maternal="" dose)="" was="" estimated="" to="" be="" 21.5="" mcg/day="" (range="" 5.1="" to="" 31.1="" mcg/day)="" which="" averaged="" 5.1%="" (range="" 1.4="" to="" 10.6%)="" of="" the="" maternal="" weight-adjusted="">10>
One 15-week postpartum mother was taking immediate-release bupropion 75 mg twice daily. After 2 weeks of therapy and full breastfeeding, serum levels of bupropion (<5 mcg/L) and hydroxybupropion (<100 mcg/L) were undetectable in her infant 2 hours after nursing and after the mother's dose. Another mother who was 29-weeks postpartum was taking sustained-release bupropion 150 mg daily. After 10.5 weeks of therapy and approximately 80% breastfeeding, serum levels of bupropion (<10 mcg/L) and hydroxybupropion (<200 mcg/L) were undetectable in her infant 3.25 hours after nursing and after the mother's dose.
Three breastfed infants ranging in age from 14 to 56 days whose mothers were taking bupropion 150 or 300 mg of bupropion SR had their urine collected 2 hours after a maternal dose; 1 infant had urine collected on 2 occasions. Only one of the infants' urine samples had detectable amounts (>10 mcg/L) of bupropion at 41 mcg/L; metabolites were not measured.
Effects in Breastfed Infants:
Three partially to fully breastfed infants who were 15 weeks to 14 months of age had no clinically detectable adverse effects during maternal bupropion therapy. Dosages were 100 mg 3 times daily of the immediate-release product in one mother, and 150 mg daily in the other two, one as the SR product and one as the immediate-release product.
Two women of 8 in an open-label clinical trial of bupropion SR for postpartum depression breastfed their infants. The median dosage of bupropion SR in the 8 women was 262.5 mg (range 37.5-300 mg). Seven women completed the 8-week study and 1 took the drug for 6 weeks. No specific details were given on the 2 women who breastfed their infants, but neither noted any adverse effects in their infants.
A woman who started taking sustained-release bupropion 150 mg daily fed her 6-month-old infant by breastfeeding and stored breastmilk in addition to solid foods. After 3 days and 2 doses of the drug, the infant had symptoms consistent with a seizure, but no infant serum levels were obtained. The seizure was possibly related to the bupropion in breastmilk.
An uncontrolled online survey compiled data on 930 mothers who nursed their infants while taking an antidepressant. Infant drug discontinuation symptoms (e.g., irritability, low body temperature, uncontrollable crying, eating and sleeping disorders) were reported in about 10% of infants. Mothers who took antidepressants only during breastfeeding were much less likely to notice symptoms of drug discontinuation in their infants than those who took the drug in pregnancy and lactation.
In a telephone follow-up study, 124 mothers who took a benzodiazepine while nursing reported whether their infants had any signs of sedation. One mother who was taking bupropion 1 mg daily, flurazepam 15 mg daily, clonazepam 0.25 mg twice daily, and risperidone 0.75 mg daily reported sedation in her breastfed infant.
Possible Effects on Lactation:
Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
1. Weissman AM, Levy BT, Hartz AJ et al. Pooled analysis of antidepressant levels in lactating mothers, breast milk, and nursing infants. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161:1066-78. PMID:15169695 2. Briggs GG, Samson JH, Ambrose PJ et al. Excretion of bupropion in breast milk. Ann Pharmacother. 1993;27:431-3. PMID:8477117 3. Haas JS, Kaplan CP, Barenboim D et al.Bupropionin breast milk: an exposure assessment for potential treatment to prevent post-partum tobacco use. Tob Control. 2004;13:52-6. PMID:14985597 4. Davis MF, Miller HS, Nolan PE.Bupropionlevels in breast milk for 4 mother-infant pairs: more answers to lingering questions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2009;70:297-8. PMID:19265649 5. Baab SW, Peindl KS, Piontek VM et al. Serum bupropion levels in 2 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63:910-1. PMID:12416600 6. Nonacs RM, Soares CN, Viguera AC et al.BupropionSR for the treatment of postpartum depression: a pilot study. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005;8:445-9. PMID:15817137 7. Chaudron LH, Schoenecker CJ.Bupropionand breastfeeding: a case of a possible infant seizure. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004;65:881-2. PMID:15291673 8. Hale TW, Kendall-Tackett K, Cong Z, Votta R, McCurdy F. Discontinuation syndrome in newborns whose mothers took antidepressants while pregnant or breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2010;5:283-8. PMID:20807106 9. Kelly LE, Poon S, Madadi P, Koren G. Neonatal benzodiazepines exposure during breastfeeding. J Pediatr. 2012;161:448-51. PMID:22504099
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