Drug Levels and Effects:

Summary of Use during Lactation:

No information is available on the use of epinephrine during breastfeeding. Because of its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, any epinephrine in milk is unlikely to affect the infant. High intravenous doses of epinephrine might reduce milk production or milk letdown. Low-dose epidural, topical, inhaled or ophthalmic epinephrine are unlikely to interfere with breastfeeding. To substantially diminish the effect of the drug after using eye drops, place pressure over the tear duct by the corner of the eye for 1 minute or more, then remove the excess solution with an absorbent tissue.

Drug Levels:

Maternal Levels.

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Infant Levels.

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Effects in Breastfed Infants:

Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.

Possible Effects on Lactation:

Relevant published information in nursing mothers was not found as of the revision date. Intravenous epinephrine infusion in nonnursing subjects and in women with hyperprolactinemia decreases serum prolactin concentrations.[1] Animal data indicate that intraarterial epinephrine can decrease serum oxytocin and reduce milk production at lower doses by possible peripheral vasoconstriction, which reduces the amount of oxytocin reaching the mammary gland.[2] However, low-dose infusion of epinephrine as part of epidural analgesia does not impair breastfeeding in nursing mothers.[3][4] The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed.


Nicoletti I, Filipponi P, Sfrappini M et al. Catecholamines and pituitary function. I. Effects of catecholamine synthesis inhibition and subsequent catecholamine infusion on gonadotropin and prolactin serum levels in normal cycling women and in women with hyperprolactinemic amenorrhea. Horm Res. 1984;19:158-70. PMID:6425187
Gorewit RC, Aromando MC. Mechanisms involved in the adrenalin-induced blockade of milk ejection in dairy cattle. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1985;180:340-7. PMID:4048172
Radzyminski S. The effect of ultra low dose epidural analgesia on newborn breastfeeding behaviors. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2003;32:322-31. PMID:12774874
Chang ZM, Heaman MI. Epidural analgesia during labor and delivery: effects on the initiation and continuation of effective breastfeeding. J Hum Lact. 2005;21:305-14. PMID:16113019

Substance Identification:

Substance Name:


CAS Registry Number:


Drug Class:

  • Adrenergic Agonists

  • Adrenergic alpha-Agonists

  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists

  • Antiglaucoma Agents

  • Bronchodilator Agents

  • Catecholamines

  • Mydriatics

  • Sympathomimetics

  • Vasoconstrictor Agents

  • Administrative Information:

    LactMed Record Number:


    Last Revision Date:

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