Garlic (Allium sativum) contains alliin, which is metabolized by the enzyme alliinase to allicin, thought to be responsible for most of garlic's medicinal properties and odor. Garlic has been used to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. It has no specific indications for use during lactation in western countries. Garlic has been used as a galactogogue in India, although no scientific data could be located on its use alone as a galactogogue. Garlic's odor is transmitted to breastmilk, which may increase infant sucking time acutely and might enhance the breastfed infant's food choices in the long term. Garlic has a long history of use as a food and medicine and is "generally recognized as safe" (GRAS) as a food flavoring by the US Food and Drug Administration, including during lactation. Limited scientific data found that a few days of oral garlic supplementation caused no adverse effects in nursing mothers or infants. When used as a medicinal, garlic is generally well tolerated in adults, but gastrointestinal side effects and bad breath and body odor may occur. Garlic has anti-platelet effects and should be used cautiously by women at risk for bleeding. Garlic can cause allergies and should be avoided by persons allergic to garlic or other members of the lily family, such as hyacinth, tulip, onion, leek, and chives. Topical application of garlic can cause dermatitis and burns and should be used with caution, especially in infants. One nursing mother received severe burns to the breast from prolonged (2 days) application of a poultice of raw, crushed garlic to treat a self-diagnosed Candida infection.
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Mothers given placebo or 1.5 g of garlic (General Nutrition Center, Pittsburgh, PA) incapsulesonce daily extracted about 20 mL of breastmilk every hour for 4 hours after garlic ingestion. A panel of 11 men and women who were blinded to maternal product ingestion rated the perceived odor of garlic in each sample. Garlic odor was most strongly perceived at 2 hours after maternal garlic ingestion. The odor remained equally perceptible at 3 hours after ingestion in some mothers' milk.
Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
Effects in Breastfed Infants:
Maternal garlic ingestion has a reputation for causing colic in breastfed infants. Two papers tend to refute this claim. In one, 153 mothers who answered a questionnaire were no more likely to report colic in their infants in the previous week if they had ingested garlic than if they had not. In another, mothers who were given either 1.5 grams of garlic or placebocapsulesonce daily in a blinded fashion for 3 days were asked if their infants had exhibited any signs of colic aftercapsuleingestion (were fussier, cried more or had more gas). Four of 20 women who ingested garlic thought their infants had colic; however, 4 of 10 women who received placebo thought they had received garlic and reported colic in their infants.
Possible Effects on Lactation:
Forty women who complained of an insufficient milk supply at 5 days postpartum were given a combination herbal supplement as 2capsulesof Lactare (Pharma Private Ltd., Madras, India) 3 times daily. Eachcapsulecontained wild asparagus 200 mg, ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) 100 mg, fenugreek 50 mg, licorice 50 mg, and garlic 20 mg. By day 4 of therapy, no infants required supplementary feeding. Infants were weighed before and after each feeding on the fifth day of maternal therapy to determine the amount of milk ingested. On the day of the test weighing, infants' milk intake averaged 388 mL, and the fluid and caloric intake was considered adequate. This study cannot be considered as valid evidence of a galactogogue effect of these herbs because it lacks randomization, blinding, a placebo control, and maternal instruction in breastfeeding technique. Additionally, infants were breastfed only 6 to 8 times daily, which is insufficient to maximize milk supply.
In two studies conducted by the same investigators,capsulescontaining 1.5 g of garlic extract (General Nutrition Center, Pittsburgh, PA) were given to nursing mothers. In the first experiment, 8 mothers receive a garliccapsuleor placebo once daily in a crossover fashion. Garlic-naive infants whose mothers ingested garliccapsulesspent more time (33 vs 27 minutes) attached to the nipple during the time period of 1.5 to 3 hours after garlic ingestion when garlic odor in milk was maximal than in those whose mothers received a placebo; however, total number of nursings or total amount of milk ingestion did not differ between groups. A study randomized nursing mothers to receive garliccapsulesor placebo for 3 days before testing with a singlecapsuleas in the study above. Infants who received garlic in the milk for the first time spent 30% more time nursing than after placebo. Infants who had been previously exposed to garlic in milk, did not spend more time nursing after subsequent garlic exposure in milk. The authors interpreted the results of these studies as having a positive effect on infants' later food choices (i.e., being less "picky" about foods).
1. Sayed NZ, Deo R, Mukundan U. Herbal remedies used by Warlis of Dahanu to induce lactation in nursing mothers. Indian J Tradit Knowl. 2007;6:602-5. 2. Amuthavalluvan V, Devarapalli J. Indigenous knowledge and health seeking behavior among Kattunayakan: a tribe in transition . Glob J Human Soc Sci. 2011;11. 3. O'Hara M, Kiefer D, Farrell K, Kemper K. A review of 12 commonly used medicinal herbs. Arch Fam Med. 1998;7:523-36. PMID:9821826 4. Roberge RJ, Leckey R, Spence R, Krenzelok EJ. Garlic burns of the breast. Am J Emerg Med. 1997;15:548. Letter. PMID:9270405 5. Mennella JA , Beauchamp GK. Maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling's behavior. Pediatrics. 1991;88:737-44. PMID:1896276 6. Lust KD, Brown JE, Thomas W. Maternal intake of cruciferous vegetables and other foods and colic symptoms in exclusively breast-fed infants. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996;96:46-8. PMID:8537569 7. Mennella JA , Beauchamp GK. The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior. Pediatr Res. 1993;34:805-8. PMID:8108198 8. Sholapurkar ML. 'Lactare' for improving lactation. Indian Pract. 1986;39:1023-6. 9. Beauchamp GK, Mennella JA. Early flavor learning and its impact on later feeding behavior. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;48 (Suppl. 1):S25-30 . PMID:19214055
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