Excretion of gold into milk after goldsodiumthiomalate has not been rigorously studied. Case reports indicate that gold appears in milk in small quantities and at least a little of it is absorbed because it is detectable in the infant's urine. No convincing cases of toxicity have been reported. Opinions of authors of review articles vary from recommending avoidance to allowing use. Monitoring for possible adverse effects in the breastfed infant would seem prudent.
The milk of one mother contained 22 mcg/L after a total dose of goldsodiumthiomalate of 370 over a 7-week period and 40 mcg/L after 395 mg over about 8 weeks.
Gold levels reached a peak of 30 mcg/L 17 hours after a 20 mg intramuscular dose of goldsodiumthiomalate and persisted at about the same levels for at least 72 hours when another dose of 50 mg was administered. A peak milk level of 153 mcg/L was measured 22 hours after this dose and fluctuated around this level until at least 42 hours after the dose. In another mother reported in the same paper, peak milk level of 15 mcg/L occurred 36 hours after a dose of 10 mg. Following a subsequent dose of 20 mg, a peak milk level of 140 mcg/L occurred at 24 hours and 165 mcg/L at 69 hours after the dose. A third 20 mg dose resulted in a level of 185 mcg/L 3 hours after the dose when collection was stopped.
A woman received goldsodiumthiomalate during pregnancy and after delivery in dose of 10 mg every 3 to 4 weeks. Milk levels ranged between 15 and 30 mcg/L after the postpartum doses.
Gold was detectable in an infant's urine at a level of 0.4 mcg/L after a cumulative maternal dose of 370 mg over a 7-week period. One month later, gold was undetectable (<0.4 mcg/L) in the infant's urine after another maternal dose of 20 mg during this time.
A woman received goldsodiumthiomalate during pregnancy and after delivery in dose of 10 mg every 3 to 4 weeks. Gold was detected in the infant's urine in a concentration of 51 mcg/L on one occasion 21 days after the previous dose.
Effects in Breastfed Infants:
Four infants reportedly have been breastfed during maternal gold therapy (including goldsodiumthiomalate and gold aurothioglucose). Transient facial edema occurred in an 18-month-old infant, 3 months after the mother's treatment stopped. The reaction was possibly due to gold in the mother's milk ingested by the infant.
Possible Effects on Lactation:
Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
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