Lopinavir

Drug Levels and Effects:




Summary of Use during Lactation:


In the United States and other developed countries, HIV-infected mothers should generally not breastfeed their infants. In countries in which no acceptable, feasible, sustainable and safe replacement feeding is available, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months with triple antiretroviral therapy is recommended for HIV-infected mothers to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from the mother to the infant compared with mixed feeding.[1][2][3][4][5][6] In these settings, abrupt weaning at 4 months does not reduce the risk of HIV transmission or produce an overall health benefit compared to continued breastfeeding, and increases the risk of infant death in HIV-infected infants.[7] Lopinavir has been successfully used as part of a regimen that decreases mother-to-child transmission of HIV.[6][8] Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis in breastfed infants with antiretroviral drugs appears to reduce the rate of HIV transmission during breastfeeding by about half, but the optimal regimen and duration of prophylaxis has not yet been defined.[9][10][11][12] Breastfed infants whose mothers receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have higher rates of neutropenia during the first month and severe anemia during the first 6 months of life.


Drug Levels:


Maternal Levels.

One study measured lopinavir in breastmilk samples from nursing mothers who had been randomized to receive the drug as part of a clinical trial to evaluate maternal to child transmission of HIV infection. The dosages, dosage regimens and time of breastmilk sample collection times were not reported. Lopinavir was not detected in any of 60 breastmilk samples.[13]

Nine mothers who were receiving lopinavir 400 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg twice daily as part of a combination antiretroviral regimen provided a total of 23 milk samples at birth, 1 month, 3 months and/or 6 months postpartum. Milk samples were collected at a median of 4.5 hours (range 3.5 to 6 hours) after the previous dose. The median breastmilk lopinavir concentration was 1834 mcg/L (range 557 to 3950 mcg/L).[14]

Infant Levels.

Breastfed infants of 9 mothers who were receiving lopinavir 400 mg plus ritonavir 100 mg twice daily as part of a combination antiretroviral regimen had a total of 6 blood samples analyzed at 1 month, 3 months and/or 6 months postpartum. Samples were collected at a median of 4.5 hours (range 3.5 to 6 hours) after the previous maternal dose and a median of 30 minutes (range 20 to 60 minutes) after the previous nursing. The infants' median lopinavir plasma concentrations was 105 mcg/L (range 12 to 518 mcg/L), which was a median of 8% (range 0 to 16%) of the maternal serum concentration.[14]


Effects in Breastfed Infants:


A study compared the rates of severe anemia in 3 groups of infants who received postpartum prophylaxis with zidovudine for prevention of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Through 6 months of age, breastfed infants whose mothers received HAART had a higher rate of severe anemia (7.4%) than breastfed infants whose mothers received only zidovudine (5.3%). Formula-fed infants had the lowest rate of severe anemia (2.5%). The anemia generally responded well to iron and multivitamin supplementation, and discontinuation of zidovudine.[15]


Possible Effects on Lactation:


Gynecomastia has been reported among men receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gynecomastia is unilateral initially, but progresses to bilateral in about half of cases. No alterations in serum prolactin were noted and spontaneous resolution usually occurred within one year, even with continuation of the regimen.[16][17][18] Some case reports and in vitro studies have suggested that proteaseinhibitorsmight cause hyperprolactinemia and galactorrhea in some male patients,[19][20] although this has been disputed.[21] The relevance of these findings to nursing mothers is not known. The prolactin level in a mother with established lactation may not affect her ability to breastfeed.


Alternate Drugs to Consider:


Lamivudine,Nelfinavir,Nevirapine,Zidovudine


References:


1. World Health Organization. HIV and infant feeding: update. 2007.
2. Dao H, Mofenson LM, Ekpini R et al. International recommendations on antiretroviral drugs for treatment of HIV-infected women and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings: 2006 update. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197 (3 Suppl):S42-55. PMID:17825650
3. Branson BM, Handsfield HH, Lampe MA et al. Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006;55 (RR-14):1-17. PMID:16988643
4. McIntyre J, Dabis F, Mofenson LM et al. Rapid advice: Use of antiretroviral drugs for treating pregnant women and preventing HIV infection in infants. World Health Organization. Geneva. 2009;1-23.
5. Chasela CS, Hudgens MG, Jamieson DJ et al. Maternal or infant antiretroviral drugs to reduce HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2271-81. PMID:20554982
6. Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, Ogwu A et al. Antiretroviral regimens in pregnancy and breast-feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2282-94. PMID:20554983
7. Kuhn L, Aldrovandi GM, Sinkala M et al. Effects of early, abrupt weaning on HIV-free survival of children in Zambia. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:130-41. PMID:18525036
8. Meda N, Fao P, Ky-Zerbo O et al. Triple antiretroviral compared with zidovudine and single-nose nevirapine prophylaxis during pregnancy and breastfeeding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 (Kesho Bora Study): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2011;11:171-80. PMID:21237718
9. Kumwenda NI, Hoover DR, Mofenson LM et al. Extended antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast-milk HIV-1 transmission. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:119-29. PMID:18525035
10. Mofenson LM. Antiretroviral prophylaxis to reduce breast milk transmission of HIV type 1: new data but still questions. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;48:237-40. PMID:18545160
11. Bedri A, Gudetta B, Isehak A et al. Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomised controlled trials. Lancet. 2008;372:300-13. PMID:18657709
12. Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Lee TH, Essex M. Efficacy of antiretroviral drugs in reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Africa: a meta-analysis of published clinical trials. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:827-37. PMID:18544018
13. Rezk NL, White N, Bridges AS et al. Studies on antiretroviral drug concentrations in breast milk: validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 7anti-human immunodeficiency virus medications. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30:611-9. PMID:18758393
14. Palombi L, Pirillo MF, Andreotti M et al. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for breastfeeding transmission in Malawi: drug concentrations, virological efficacy and safety. Antivir Ther. 2012. PMID:22910456
15. Dryden-Peterson S, Shapiro RL, Hughes MD et al. Increased risk of severe infant anemia following exposure to maternal HAART, Botswana. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:428-36. PMID:21266910
16. Garcia-Benayas T, Blanco F, Martin-Carbonero L et al. Gynecomastia in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003;19:739-41. PMID:14585204
17. Pantanowitz L, Evans D, Gross PD, Dezube BJ. HIV-related gynecomastia. Breast J. 2003;9:131-2. PMID:12603389
18. Evans DL, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ, Aboulafia DM. Breast enlargement in 13 men who were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1113-9. PMID:12384846
19. Hutchinson J, Murphy M, Harries R, Skinner CJ. Galactorrhoea and hyperprolactinaemia associated with protease-inhibitors. Lancet. 2000;356:1003-4. PMID:11041407
20. Orlando G, Brunetti L, Vacca M. Ritonavir and saquinavir directly stimulate anterior pituitary prolactin secretion, in vitro. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2002;15:65-8. PMID:12593790
21. Montero A, Bottasso OA, Luraghi MR et al. Galactorrhoea, hyperprolactinaemia, and proteaseinhibitors. Lancet. 2001;357:473-4; author reply 475. PMID:11273087



Substance Identification:




Substance Name:

Lopinavir

CAS Registry Number:

192725-17-0

Drug Class:


  • Antiinfective Agents

  • Anti
  • -HIV Agents

  • Antiviral Agents

  • Anti
  • -Retroviral Agents

  • HIV Protease
  • Inhibitors

    Administrative Information:




    LactMed Record Number:


    659


    Last Revision Date:


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